7. CISS, Ahmedabad, 2017 by Lancy Lobo.
6. Status of Shantiniketan School, Zankhvav, 2016 by Lancy Lobo.
5. Indian Social Institute, Bangalore, 2015 by Lancy Lobo (Convenor).
4. Indian Social Institute, Delhi, 2014 by Lancy Lobo (Team member).
3. St. Mary’s Nursing Home, Ahmedabad, 2014 by Lancy Lobo, Jayesh Shah and Kanchan Bharati.
2. St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai, 2014 by Lancy Lobo and Jayesh Shah.
1. Regional Theologates in India, 2006 by Lancy Lobo.

15. Functioning of Tribal Political Structures: A Study of Tribal Self-Governance and Panchayats in Selected Villages of South Gujarat.

A large amount of  research literature on tribals in India deals with tribal ecology, economy, arts and crafts, magic, witchcraft, religion, and culture (narrowly defined to include dress, music, dance, drama, festivals, ceremonies, and so on) (Shah 2010: 21). However, there is very little literature on tribal political life and engagement in the political sphere at the community, local, regional and state level. Only after Surajit Sinha’s (1962, 1965 and 1987) explorative works, some enquiries on this dimension, by anthropologists and historians became available (Kulke 1976, Thusu 1980, Hardiman 1994, Guha 1996, Sundar 1997, Skaria 1999 and Panda 2005). However, most of these studies remain limited to either the central or eastern part of India. So far, in western India, there is very little information about the tribal political structure and understanding of how the traditional system of self-governance interacts with the constitutional system of governance (after the 73rd Amendment Act). In this context, the present study proposes to examine the interaction of the traditional tribal self-governance institutions in relation to constitutional panchayats in selected tribal villages of south Gujarat. It tries to throw light on the structure, process and functioning of these institutions and their socio-political impacts on people in these villages.

14. Socio-economic Status of Valmiki Community in Bhal Region of Gujarat

In Gujarat, Dalit community constitutes approximately 3.6 million persons. Within the Dalit umbrella, there are several sub-castes based divisions basically based on their occupations such as leather workers, street sweepers, cobblers and agricultural workers. The Valmiki are considered the lowest of the low among the Dalits; they are ex-untouchables traditionally associated with cleaning, sweeping and scavenging work. Officially, the community is estimated to have one million persons. After seven decades of independence, this community has been largely deprived of the development, freedom and equality enshrined in the Constitution of India. They are marginalized socially, economically and politically even today after the abolition of Varna-caste discrimination legally.

Though there are considerable studies on different aspects of Dalits in India, there is hardly any study exclusively on a particular community in a region. To fill this vacuum in Sociological knowledge, the Centre for Culture and Development (CCD) has taken the initiative to study the socio-economic status of the Valmiki community in the Bhal region of Gujarat. This research study will be an empirical study located in a geographical district of Anand in Gujarat.

This study is important considering that they are poorer among the poor and Dalits among the Dalits. They observe discrimination not only by the upper exploitative castes but also by the so-called upper Dalit caste groups. They have faced discrimination with other communities in both rural, urban areas; private and public sectors; educational institutions; Panchayats, Administrative offices, places of worship, places of recreation and entertainment in India. By focusing on some of the selective aspects of this community, the study will give an adequate understanding of the community and their ‘lived’ life. It would highlight about the community viz-a-viz their socio-economic status, their neighbourhoods, their occupation pattern and mobility and so on. It would also focus on understanding the experience of the community through the spectrum of change and continuity over the years in terms of their social status.

In view of CCD’s vision and mission of focusing on the marginal sections of society, especially in Gujarat - such as Adivasi, Dalits, minorities and women, the Centre is in better position to take up this research study. It would not only bring out the intricacies of the status of Valmiki in Gujarat, but could be a unique contribution to the sociology and anthropology of Dalits in India. It will help highlight the socio-economic reality of a community and hopefully provide various issues for development agencies and policy makers. It will also help the activists from the community itself to have a more studied perspective of their own social reality and way forward.

The project will be located in the district of Anand in Gujarat, specifically in the Bhal region. This region constitutes 22 villages with the dominant population/households of the Valmiki community. The study would cover all the 22 villages.

13. A Socio-Economic Study of Daily Labour Market Workers in the Selected Towns of Gujarat.

This research study will be an empirical study on the workers of daily labour markets (hence after DLM) at the selected towns in the state of Gujarat. The DLMs as informal/unorganized employment sector, received less attention both by academia and by the government despite its significant contribution in providing employment to a large workforce and contributing to the country’s economic growth. Such labour markets are a worldwide phenomenon known by different names in different countries and places, but unlike India in developed countries, they are highly regulated in terms of the hiring process, wages and better accountability.

The present study is situated in Gujarat, western India, which is highly economically dynamic state with heavy investments in agro-processing, industrial and construction sectors. Consequently, there is a huge demand for informal labour, which cannot be met locally, hence its cities and towns act like a magnet drawing in skilled and unskilled labour in large numbers.

The study will be focused on four towns of the state. Though there are considerable studies on informal sector labourers, including casual labourers and contract labourers, there is hardly any study exclusively on daily labour markets and labourers. Further, these markets and their workers rarely studied in small towns or suburbs.

Recently Centre for Culture and Development (CCD) has completed a study on migrant workers at 15 daily labour markets in three metro cities of Gujarat. The study revealed that a majority of DLM workers were tribal migrants within the states and from neighbouring states namely Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. These workers provide their labour chiefly in the construction and allied industries. In contrast to this study, the present study will try to examine the nature, character and dynamics of the worker, their work, life and issues at DLMs in the smaller towns of Gujarat.

In Gujarat, few major urban centres are linked with several small towns surrounded by villages. These urban centres are by and large evenly distributed so that a village has several towns in its vicinity. For these villagers, these towns are market centres having their specific economic structure and have close linkages in several aspects. The most important linkage is that they provide work for surplus unemployed rural labour in different sectors. They are offering the most opportunities for informal sector employment, mostly in the form of informal and seasonal occupations. Jobs are created to accommodate off-season workers who come from surrounding villages seeking employment either to sustain or diversify their income. These works consist of agricultural labourers in sugarcane plantations and allied sugar industries or providing industrial labour in small industries providing readymade semiskilled labour. It is believed that various labour markets in many towns have a pool of marginalized labour, responding to a variety of jobs that town people may throw upon them daily. Experiences of these daily labour markets in different towns may be different regarding their work and life but they may converge towards indicating similarities in patterns.

12.Structure and Behaviour of Daily Labour Markets in Gujarat

This research study will be a micro-empirical study on the labourers of daily labour markets in the state of Gujarat. The study will cover three million plus cities and one town having population more than one lakh of the whole state of Gujarat. Though there are considerable studies on informal sector labourers, including casual labourers and contract labourers, there is hardly any study exclusively on daily labour markets and labourers.

In this proposed research study of the daily labour markets, we will examine predominantly composed of migrant labour, including those from within the state of Gujarat as well as from other states. Such daily labour markets in many cities and towns have a pool of marginalized labour, responding to a variety of jobs that a city may throw upon them on a daily basis. Experiences of these daily labour markets in different cities and towns seemingly converge towards indicating similarities in patterns.[i]

Broadly, this study will be an analysis of the structure and behaviour of daily labour markets in the state of Gujarat. As Gujarat is the most economically dynamic state with a strong agricultural and agro-processing base combined with heavy investments in industrial sectors such as petrochemicals, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, diamond processing, engineering and logistics. The state is also emerging as a potential hub for IT/ITeS and biotechnology industry. Consequently, there is a huge demand for informal labour which cannot be met locally. Thus, the cities and towns acts like a magnet drawing in labour both skilled and unskilled in large numbers from parts of Gujarat and other states who work as informal labourers without any of the statutory benefits that are their rights[ii].


Rationale for undertaking this research study is three-fold. First, by focusing on an otherwise less documented daily labour markets in Gujarat where there is a predominance of daily labourers, we intend to contribute to a better understanding of their working and living conditions in a burgeoning urban setting. Second, understanding the plight of daily labourers hired through daily labour market is an important part of the larger goal of understanding the informal sector in the economy. Third, daily labour market labourers in the state of Gujarat represent a class of migrants that do not conform to the Harris-Todaro formulations on rural-urban migration.  Our analysis will rely on some supply side factors, mainly employment, wage and income, and inter-generation occupational transition, among others. We will also rely on some demand side factors, mainly opportunities available for specific skills from the formal sectors as well as informal sectors in the urban areas. We will also try to analyse inter-sectoral transition of labourers of daily labour markets so that we can come to the conclusion based on hypothesis that contrary to the Harris-Todaro formulation of probabilistic transition, the labourers are destined to remain in the informal sector. Another hypothesis will be based on the daily labour market labourers who represent pauperization of the peasantry and it is a distress migration rather than the Harris-Todaro choice migration. There are no reliable estimates based on detailed sample surveys of the number of daily labourers hired through daily labour markets. The estimates based on the decennial census and National Sample Surveys conducted by the Central Statistical Organization are flawed because of definitional problems. A different calculation based on statistics of informal labour collated by the departments of industries of various states gives a figure as high as 100 million for the whole of India[iii].

In Gujarat, we have identified 189 daily labour markets at several squares or junctions in urban centers where more than 250 daily labourers gathered to get the employment. Hence, there is a need to do more in-depth studies of the daily labour markets in the urban areas and especially in the state of Gujarat where they form a large part of the workforce. Given the near total neglect of the rights and entitlements of these labourers by the government and employers, such studies will help to build up an authentic data base for bringing about a change in the policy domain.

 [i] Das, Biswaroop (1990): Migrant Labour in Urban Areas, Centre for Social Studies, Surat (Mimeo.), pp. 11-21.

[ii] Das, Biswaroop and G. B. Sahu (2008): Income, Remittances And Urban Labour Markets : Oriya Migrant Workers in Surat City, Centre for Social Studies, Surat.

[iii] Deshingkar, P., P. Sharma, S. Kumar, S. Akter and J. Farrington (2008): Circular migration in Madhya Pradesh: Changing patterns and Social Protection Needs. The European Journal of Development Research Vol. 20, No. 4, December 2008, 612–628.

11.A Series entitled: INDIAN ANTHROPOLOGY, 1886-1936, Editors: A.M. Shah and Lancy Lobo. Publishers: Primus Publications, Delhi.

The Anthropological Society of Bombay was a learned society formed by the English-educated literati of Bombay (now Mumbai), both European and Indian, in 1886. It published the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay (hereafter JASB) continuously till 1936. In 50 years, JASB published 15 volumes, each with eight numbers, plus a Silver Jubilee Number and a Golden Jubilee Number, that is, an average of two to three numbers a year. In all, it published about 750 articles. The articles covered various branches of anthropology. Although the majority of articles were concerned with South Asia, a remarkably large number also covered West Asia, North-East Africa, East Asia, South-East Asia, Europe and America. Within South Asia, all the major regions and religions were covered. In all about 130 authors contributed to the journal. They belonged to almost all parts of South Asia and several countries of Europe.

JASB is a valuable record of the first fifty years of anthropology in South Asia, almost forgotten today. It offers rare ethnographies and theoretical discussions that can be used to understand the society and culture of the time, as the benchmark for studying social and cultural change, and as insights into the creativity of scholarship. With a view to helping scholars in using them, the articles in JASB are classified according to certain broad themes and will be presented in a series of volumes. The series will be entitled Indian Anthropology, 1886-1936, and every volume will carry a suitable title. We have already signed the agreement for publication of Volume I, Essays on Suicide and Self-immolation with Primus Publication, Delhi. We are now halfway through preparing the next volume, entitled Ethnography of East and South-East Asia. The next two volumes planned are Ethnography of West Asia and North-East Africa, and The Parsees: Their Traditional Society and Culture. Other volumes will follow.
We are sure this series will provide a new view of the formative period of Indian Anthropology, which will be of interest to a wide range of scholars both in India and worldwide.

 10.Study of Social and Political Structure of four South Gujarat Tribes.

This research project aims to the study social and political structure of four tribes in south Gujarat. By and large, Indian anthropologists have studied mainly the culture of the tribes but not their social structure: their culture (Sanskriti), rather than their society (Samaj). The present study seeks to fill this lacunae. This study proposes to cover the internal social organization such as household, family, lineage, clan, kinship and marriage networks. This research will take a household census, and draw genealogical charts of household, family, lineage, clan and kinship networks of the people of selected villages in these tribes. It will trace the spread of kinship network both consanguineal and affinal. It will construct the patterns of kinship and affinity that link up individuals and groups in different neighbouring villages in an extensive network of mutual rights and obligations, and then investigate their links with political structures like village, taluka and district panchayats.

The four tribes are Vasava, Chaudhury, Warli and Kokna. A village each are chosen for an intensive study similar to the study on Gamit tribe done last year. When the individual studies are over we intend to compare the grammar of five tribal societies of south Gujarat in terms of similarities and differences.

09. Suicidal Trends and their Socio-economic and Psychological Determinants in Gujarat: A Pilot Study of Vadodara District.

The rising trend of suicides in recent times is making it a major cause of concern for the society as well as for policymakers. Though Suicide is a personal act, there are internal and external factors that determine the suicidal behaviour. It is a multi-factorial phenomenon, influenced by several mutually interacting psychological, social, economic, biological/psychiatric, cultural, and environmental factors. Suicidal deaths and their patterns are thus a reflection of the prevailing social set up and of mental health status of the individual. Since causes of suicide are found in the social set up itself, increased incidence of suicide shows that something has gone wrong with the society. Moreover the phenomenon of suicide is not confined to a particular region or community or to any given period, but its appearance varies from region to region and from time to time. In such circumstances, there is a necessity to look at the magnitude and pattern of suicidal deaths as well as to understand the ways that shape the options available to people in different contexts to end their lives. Unlike research studies on suicide for different states of India, there exist no specific study on the state of Gujarat based on social demography and mental health of the citizen of the state. This is of concern as in 2015, Gujarat reported 7,246 suicides, with the suicide rate of 11.6 per one-lakh population against the national average of 10.6 per one-lakh population. Considering that by and large, suicide as an area of research has remained aloof from the purview of intellectuals, the present study is undertaken to look at the trends and tendencies of suicidal deaths with their socio-psycho-economic determinants in the state and specifically in Vadodara District. The study includes both secondary and primary data. The details of suicidal deaths were gathered from different secondary sources that include National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB), State Crime Record Bureau (SCRB), and Crime Analysis Unit, CID, Gandhinagar. These secondary sources provided details of suicidal deaths in the country, the state, and the district (police station wise). For the primary case studies, data is collected from the hospital records (SSG, Vadodara) as well as from the police stations of Vadodara rural and city. Prof. Biswaroop Das has guided this study with a team comprising Prof. Lancy Lobo, Dr. Jayesh Shah and Dr. Kanchan Bharati. This study has been funded by Indian Council of Social Science Research, Delhi.

08. Study of Social and Political Structure of Gamit Tribe of South Gujarat.
Unfortunately, in India the social structural studies of tribals were far too few. Studies of tribals in India were by and large focused on culture rather than their structure. Hence many items of culture were studied: ecology, agriculture, arts, crafts, material culture, housing, dance, music, language, folklore, rituals, magic, witchcraft, festivals, and so on. What do we mean by social structural studies of tribals? In brief, social structure deals with household, family, kinship, lineage, clan, marriage, social stratification, leadership, and political system of the tribals. There are those very small societies, in which even the largest political unit embraces a group of people all of whom are united to one another by ties of kinship so that political relations are coterminous with kinship relations and the political structure and kinship organization are completely fused. CCD plans to study the internal social organization of the 29 tribes of Gujarat one by one. This is its long-range plan. However, it has done a pilot study in the following manner: Take a household census, and draw the genealogical charts of household and family. Then attempt to construct the spread of kinship network both consanguineal and affinal. Then find out marriage rules for giving one’s daughters and taking daughters-in-law and the spread of kinship networks. Then study the exchange pattern during life-cycle rituals, and the nature of conflicts, and how they are resolved through customary as well as civil laws. Dhananjay Kumar and Lancy Lobo have carried out this pilot study. ICSSR-Regional centre, Mumbai has financially supported this study.

07. Urban Transformation and Social Change in Gujarat: A Study of Villages on the Periphery of Vadodara City (1961-2011).

The urban areas in India have been experiencing demographic, environmental, economic and social changes since the last two decades. Given that the changes in the fringe areas have been complex and multifaceted, an analysis of more than just demography and land use is required. Its impact on local culture, social relations and religion is only fuzzily understood. The processes of change are most vicious in the vicinity of urban fringes.

The main aim of this project is to study intensively the fringe villages as well as the villages that have become part of the city boundaries, with particular reference to the city of Vadodara in Gujarat. A detailed study was made on the growth of fringe settlements, nature of housing, land use pattern, occupational structure, traditional social structure, fringe village’s governance, and continuity and change in old settlements, to capture the overarching impact of urbanization. This study was conducted in selected villages in and outside Vadodara city for the period between the years 1961 and 2011. Drs. Kanchan Bharati, Jayesh Shah and Lancy Lobo have carried out this project with ably support from Dr. Biswaroop Das. It was funded by Indian Council of Social Science Research, Delhi.

06. Changing Character of Religiosity and Communal Consciousness in Gujarat (1980-2010).
There has been an upsurge in religion, religiosity, and fundamentalism, leading to fanaticism, manifesting in marked increase in the number of shrines, temples, churches, mosques, gurudwaras, religious activities and programmes, and in festivals. A notable increase is seen in religiosity, one-upmanship, nationalism and assertion of ethnic identity in Gujarat. Frequent communal clashes and riots erupt for real or fictitious reasons. This study focuses on social organisation of religion, based on an empirical study of shrines in rural and urban sites in Vadodara district. Schedule was canvassed around each religious shrine at four sites in Vadodara District: A multi-caste, multi-religious village – Jabugam (Taluka – Jetpur Pavi)A multi-tribal, multi-religious village – Vadu (Taluka – Padra)A small town – Areas under Dabhoi Municipality Two areas of Vadodara Municipal Corporation – part of Vadodara (East) and part of Vadodara (West)Photography of each religious shrine, videography of religious celebrations and events, and interviews of religious leaders form part of data collection.
This study was conducted by Lancy Lobo and Jayesh Shah with the guidance of Professors A. M. Shah and Biswaroop Das.

05. Forests and Tribals: Their Changing Character in Gujarat (1947-2006).
The forest map and tribal map overlap in the eastern hilly region of Gujarat. The objectives of this project were: to identify the changes since 1947 in the forest areas of forest cover; to study the impact of forestry and deforestation on the livelihood of the tribal population in the area; to study the impact of the Forest Department, Joint Forest Management, Forest Co-operatives and related policies on the forests and the tribals in the area; to investigate the nature and historical background of the tribal struggles in the area; and to present the findings and policy recommendations for sustainable tribe-forest relationship in the area. Covering eighteen districts of mainland Gujarat (i.e., Gujarat excluding Saurashtra and Kachchh), the study area is divided into five regions. Secondary data were obtained from various sources: (i) processed satellite imagery for 1972, 1990, 2000 and 2007, (ii) Census of 1971 and 2001 for the forest areas and tribal population, (iii) Working Plans of the Forest Department, Government of Gujarat, and (iv) data received from various offices of Deputy Conservator of Forests (DCF), Government of Gujarat, within the study area. Primary data were collected from 180 villages. The following significant results were achieved. There is a belief that forests are only degrading and not regenerating. However, our study shows that nearly 22% of the forests have witnessed regeneration, almost 41% show degradation or destruction of forests, and the remaining 37% stand unchanged, i.e., neither degraded and nor regenerated. The forest areas have shown an increasing tendency of regeneration since 1990. Comparison of satellite imagery between 1990 and 2007 yields encouraging results. However, such regeneration is often mono-cultural for commercial exploitation, thereby denying any benefit to a larger section of tribals. Prima facie, the links between changes in the forests and among the tribals are not strong even with increase in the forest area due to regeneration. The migration of tribals for livelihood is found all across the study area. This observation becomes clearer when we relate the increase and decrease in the forest area to the migratory pattern of the tribal communities. Their migration does not appear to be much dependent on forests and their coverage anymore. Even where there is no change in the forest area, the migration has been observed to be more than double (37.69%): (16.43%) and then where forests have increased and 20.21% where decreased. It appears that in recent times the tribals are not dependent for their livelihood entirely on the forests or forest products but on alternative sources of livelihood such as dairy farming, horticulture, and agriculture applying modern techniques like drip irrigation and better seeds. This observation has to be seen in the light of continued alienation of tribals from the forests, who had no way out except migrating seasonally, temporarily or permanently in search of livelihood. Many live in the periphery of urban spaces and engaged with jobs in the informal sector such as construction and power looms. A section of the tribal youth over time has reduced their dependence on the forest for livelihood. Most of the tribal youth, after getting educated, are not ready to work in their native villages. They want to leave the village and get jobs in towns and cities.
This study was conducted by Lancy Lobo and Jayesh Shah and has resulted in the book, Forests and Tribal’s Livelihood: Their Changing Character in Gujarat (1947-2007), Delhi: Concept Publishing Company Ltd, 2017.

04. Malaria in the Social Context: Study in Western India.
Sponsored by the Department for International Development, the UK in 1996-2000, Lancy Lobo while at CSS, Surat, undertook a project, Ethnography of Malaria in Surat District. The study addressed the role of social and cultural factors in health and disease in urban and rural areas of Surat district. It focussed on malaria in a culturally and socio-economically stratified population in a few ecologically differing rural settings in the district. If inquired into the economic factors affecting people's behaviour in the various settings. However, the bulk of the work is concerned with folk beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions affecting various aspects of the incidence and treatment of malaria. It has provided detailed description and classification of people's perceptions of a number of diseases, of fevers (including malarial fevers), of mosquitoes, and of herbs used to treat these diseases. This data is likely to be useful to social and medical scientists, to health practitioners and policymakers, in the field of malaria eradication, and more broadly to those working in public health and medicine. Perceptions were gathered on (i) The link between farming and malaria, (ii) population movement and malaria transmission, and (iii) respondents of better economic status considered malaria as opposed to those of low economic status.
The major findings were as follows: (a)No single strategy can resolve the malaria problem. It has to be tackled with a combination of control measures tailored to the local setting. (b) For the success of community-based programmes of malaria control, it is necessary to know as a first step the community's socio-cultural background, based on perceptions about mosquitoes, disease transmission, breeding conditions of mosquitoes, and how best the communities can participate in the control efforts.(c)Economic development programmes such as dam construction, irrigation, or 'green revolution' technologies favour malaria. Any development project that alters pre-existing relationships between humans and their environment should be evaluated within an ecological framework.
This study was conducted by Lancy Lobo assisted mainly by Purendra Prasad and Babasaheb Kazi at CSS, Surat and resulted in the book, Malaria in the Social Context: A Study in Western India, Delhi: Routledge, 2010. Professor A.M. Shah ably supported in preparing the manuscript for publication.

03. Development Induced Displacement in Gujarat (1947-2004)
There has been much displacement of people in Gujarat as a result of the developmental efforts of the State, and it will increase under Special Economic Zones (SEZ) and Special Investment Regions (SIR). This study aimed at creating a database of the quantity of land acquired by the state during sixty years, the number of families displaced or otherwise affected, and their socio-economic status before and after displacement. To that end, the study does sub-regional as well as decadal analysis. It was carried out in three phases:(1) involved scanning 80,000 Gazette notifications under the various land acquisition laws during 1947-2004, to find out the quantum of land acquired during this period.(2) involved perusal of official documents from the district collectors’ record rooms; project sites; various ministries; studies by research and government organisations; and materials preserved in documentation centres in the Legislative Assembly, the State Secretariat, and the university and research libraries.(3) looked at a representative sample of persons displaced (DPs) or otherwise affected by the projects (PAPs) in 139 sites in order to analyse the resettlement and compensation, and the social and economic costs of displacement and rehabilitation, by the projects.
The study showed that nearly 2.5 million persons – 5 percent of the total population of the state – had lost their land and/or habitat, and fell in the category of DPs in post-independence Gujarat. The majority of them belonged to the powerless lower strata of society. Sixty percent of them were from tribal communities. Irrigation, transport, communication, and industries were the main development projects which had caused a large number of displacements. The narrative in most of the 139 displaced project sites across time, space and projects showed that the DPs were subjected to landlessness, joblessness, homelessness, marginalisation, food insecurity, increased morbidity and mortality, loss of access to common property, and social disintegration.
The study suggested that (1) development-induced displacement should adhere to the principle of the 'larger good', which should not be decided arbitrarily by the state authority; (2) the affected community needs to be involved in the process, and its members have a decisive say in the 'development' project; and (3) the project should aim at reducing inequality, and enhancing freedom, economic opportunities, and the basis of self-respect.
This study was conducted by Lancy Lobo and Shashikant Kumar and resulted in the book, Land Acquisition, Displacement and Resettlement in Gujarat, 1947-2004, Delhi: Sage, 2009.

02. Poor in Urban India.
This is a combined product of two research studies taken up simultaneously: one, an exhaustive survey of Surat's slum dwellers, sponsored by the Surat Municipal Corporation, and the other, an intensive study of Panchsheel, one of the slums, sponsored by the Indo-Dutch Programme for Alternatives in Development (IDPAD). The setting for both was the fast-growing city of Surat. The portrayal involves, firstly, a description of slums in Surat, featuring their socio-economic characteristics and the extent of availability in them of some essential amenities; and secondly, an in-depth study of one slum for a deeper understanding of such spaces and the processes by which people living in them negotiate their social and economic lives. Based on such a macro and micro understanding of slums in Surat, the study culminates in the identification of relevant issues that need to be addressed while trying to gauge the nature of such habitations for purposes of research, policy making, and planning of urban spaces in the country. Though the studies were conducted by Lancy Lobo and Biswaroop Das at CSS, Surat, their publication work was done at CCD resulting in the book, Poor in Urban India, Jaipur: Rawat, 2001.

01. Anatomy and Geography of Riots: Gujarat 2002.
This study sought to map the changing patterns of communal riots in Gujarat, especially within the larger context of the rise of Hindutva and other communal forces. The study aimed at (1)Plotting the locations of communal riots over the state, in its urban and rural areas, at two points of time, 1992 and 2002; (2)Mapping the changing patterns of the riots and their intensity in terms of damages; (3)Working out the causatives of the varying patterns; and (4) Suggested some pointing to the trend of communal conflicts apprehended in the future.
The study indicates the following set of definite patterns and trajectories that the political processes in Gujarat experienced, especially during the last one and a half decades. The identities based on primordial relations and the corresponding divisions in Gujarat society, while deep-rooted, could still accommodate articulation of an apparent unity under a broad umbrella of ‘Hindutva’, mainly due to the pronounced absence of any radical or progressive cultural or political front. The rising aspirations of the middle classes, the failure of the Congress party to effectively respond to them, and the changing political equations of the upper and middle castes vis-à-vis other groups – especially after the anti-reservation riots of 1985 - facilitated the growth of ‘Hindutva’ and associated organisations in the state. As a result, the combined strength of the BJP and the Sangh Parivar could penetrate the social base of the OBCs, the middle classes, and the marginally placed social groups like the tribes, through different forms and modalities.
The consolidation of a regional-political discourse, mediated through social mobilisation on 'Hindutva' lines, facilitated – especially since the early nineties – erosion of whatever secular forces the state might have had. Such a process and the associated factors continued to nurture and sustain a communally divisive environment, particularly over the last ten years. This study was carried out by Lancy Lobo with close support from Biswaroop Das. Most of the findings have been published in the book jointly edited by them, entitled as ‘Communal Violence and Minorities: Gujarat Society in Ferment’, Jaipur: Rawat, 2006.

14. Participatory Action Research for Fishing Communities in Coastal Gujarat: Understanding Policy Impact, Socio-Economic and Livelihood Changes Gujarat (India).

This action research study addresses the problems of socio-ecological changes and its impact on fisheries communities in coastal region (Gir-Somanth) of Gujarat. The study takes into account various categories of people engaged in fishing activities. The study is under taken in collaboration with two organisations, the Human Development and Research Centre, Ahmedabad (https://hdrc-sxnfes.org/) and the Centre for Culture and Development, Vadodara (www.ccdgujarat.com).

Traditional fishing communities are socially and economically marginalized communities in Gujarat. From the varna-caste perspective some of them fall within the social category of OBC or Scheduled Castes. Some of these communities fall within the category of religious minorities. These communities are pushed to the margins in a number of ways and a few of them are growing consumer market economy, mechanization of fishery and industrial pollution of the sea.>/p>

These coastal communities are engaged in small-scale fisheries but make an important contribution to nutrition, food security, sustainable livelihood, and poverty alleviation, in developing countries. Despite this significant contribution, there is a neglect of the small-scale fisheries in the fisheries policy globally (Johnson, 2018). There is no universal definition of small-scale fisheries because of their universality and diversity (Alfaro-Shigueto et al., 2010).

The study is located in the Junagadh and Gir-Somnath coastal districts of Saurashtra region of Gujarat. It focusses on a community residing in a coastal socio-ecology zone for years and engaged in traditional fishing activities. This area is also facing a socio-ecological transition. The villages included in the study are from Kodinar, Sutrapada, Veraval, and Una talukas of the Gir Somnath District.

Gir Somnath is one among the group of new districts created in Gujarat in 2013. Its headquarters is Veraval, which is the major fishing hub of the state. Gir Somnath District is the most important area for fish production in Gujarat. In 2021 the district landed 295,000 tonnes of fish, which was approximately 41% of the total state landings (CMFRI Annual Report 2020–2021). The district is known for its contribution to both fresh fish as well as the dry-fish economy. The fishing season is officially from August 15 to June 10. The fishery is closed for the rainy season. Suitable geographical and ecological conditions, and the presence of many processing units and exporting industries at Veraval have contributed to the thriving fishing industry of Gir Somnath.

13. Study of Vadodara Floods: 2019.

                                                                                Vadodara Floods: A Critical Review

While events like floods, earthquakes, cyclones, tsunami etc. are generally identified as natural events, their impact on human society make them inclusive with people and their built environments. Capacity of human systems to deal with such events depends upon a variety of factors that include the nature of public institutions, ideological positions, quality of human resources and available technology within specific social systems at a given point in time. In addition, geomorphological characteristics of areas affected by such events add to variations in coping abilities of people across areas. However, in spite of a similar magnitude even within a small area, differentials in impact of a hazardous phenomenon also vary across groups by their locations in terms of access and negotiable entitlements in a society. Therefore, an understanding of the causes and impact of such disasters calls for analyzing these through their placement within different socio-political systems and the manner they get articulated through the limits of a set of corresponding mechanics within such systems in terms of a temporal and spatial perspective. And within this context, such disasters become ‘natural’ as well as ‘human’ simultaneously. The framework of understanding an event like the recent floods in Vadodara too, thus needs to be ‘inclusive’, for seeing it only as an event caused and aggravated by either a natural or a human intervention would be to shy away from emphasizing upon and employing a holistic framework to its analysis.

It may not be out of place to mention here that Vishwamitri River is a seasonal river which flows east to west between the Mahi and Narmada rivers. The river flows west through the city of Vadodara and joins the Dhadhar River and Jambuva River before emptying into the Gulf of Khambhat near Khanpur village. This river system includes the Sayaji (Ajwa) Sarovar on the river near Ajwa, and the Dev Dam on the Dhadhar Branch. As it flows through Vadodara, the river receives the city's sewage and effluent from nearby industries. Total the 25 kilometers stretch of the river which passes through Vadodara.

Over the years of its course within the city of Vadodara, the river has been subject to severe abuse as a consequence of rapid urbanization and neglect towards water systems within the city and its outskirts. It has also suffered relentless ecological damage by way of sewage, contaminated storm water outfalls, industrial effluents drained in the river and several other point and non-point sources of pollution.

Urban governance decisions have time and again sanctioned dumping within and encroachment of the river floodplains, resulting in the disappearance of several wetlands and water systems associated with the river. As a result of the destruction of several of these natural sponges and the reduction in the river flood carrying capacity the city has become prone to flooding problems.

The city has earlier witnessed major floods of varying intensity in 1878, 1919, 1927, 1941, 1970, 1974, 1976, 1983, 1996, 2005 and the recent flood of 2019. Flood waters inundating low lying parts of city have resulted not only in despair for people living in these areas but also created situations of human animal conflicts as they endanger the habitats for crocodiles within the river as well.

The Problem

Perhaps the only thing more dynamic than a city is a river. As cultural, social, and technological advancements serve people in an increasingly urbanized environment, rivers remain a novel feature of human and environmental systems. Like many urban rivers, Vishwamitri exhibits symptoms of the “urban stream syndrome”, a condition defined by challenges such as floodplain encroachment, poor water quality, habitat degradation, increase of tolerant species, and bank erosion. There is a definite nexus between the builders-political leaders and the executive authorities. The civic sense of the citizens of the city can also be the other reason for water logging in the residential areas and on the main streets of the city roads.

The Need

Reoccurrence of flooding of Vadodara city due to the river, citizens of the city faces lot of adversaries and problems at least between five to seven days. Middle class and poor class are the worst sufferers from the flooding. Small traders and the big business houses from low lying areas also suffer heavy losses due to the entry of flood water in their business premises. We need to investigate the impact of the nexus between the builders-political leaders and the executive authorities and the civic sense of the citizens on the flooding in Vadodara city.


  1. To study
  2. What happened during flooding in 2019?
  3. What happened to whom? Which are the areas and economic classes – the worst sufferers?
  4. How it happened? Why it happened?
  5. How have the citizens handle the flooding in 2019? Coping mechanism used during flooding.
  6. What are the sources of relief and rescue operations during the flooding in 2019?
  7. How much economic losses occurred and to whom? Who are the worst sufferers in terms of economic losses?


  • Read: Secondary data of existing reports, literature reviews, preference studies, survey tools, etc.
  • Sample: Selection of samples based on the flooding data for 2005 and 2019 as 2019 flooding is almost similar to 2005
  • Map: Mapping of various sites for empirical study
  • Ask: Interaction with experts, stakeholders, decision makers
  • Observe: Field study of site and select case studies through informal interviews and FGDs

12.Status of Failed Students in Class X and XII Board Examinations in Gujarat: A Case Study of Vadodara District.

Centre has taken up minor research study on the status of failed students in Class X and XII Board examinations conducted by the Gujarat State Education Board. About 60 percent of the students fail each year and one knows little about their future. After collecting the details about the numbers of the failed students of the last two decades, the Centre will study the following:

    1. What are the sources of their livelihood?
    2. How do they shape up in their life?
    3. Their path of struggle for generating sources for their livelihood
    4. How much do they earn?
    5. What are the problems they are facing in generating sources for their livelihood?

This is a pilot study carried out by Lancy Lobo and Jayesh Shah and funded by the Indian Council of Social Science Research, Regional Centre, Mumbai.

11.Longitudinal Ethnography of Elections in Vadodara District of Gujarat 2014 & 2016.

The research study on “Longitudinal Ethnography of Elections in Vadodara District of Gujarat” has three levels, viz., local, assembly and parliamentary elections. Our team studied 2010 local body elections, 2012 assembly elections for the state of Gujarat, and 2014 parliamentary elections. The study included booth-wise analysis of votes polled, 2012 assembly elections for the state of Gujarat, and 2014 parliamentary elections. In 2015 local body elections, we studied civic awareness and political participation and ethnography of elections. For every election the sites remain the same, viz., Vadu, a multi-caste village in Padra taluka; Jabugam, a tribal village in Bodeli taluka; Dabhoi, a medium town; and two areas of Vadodara city (old and second). This is to find out the variations among rural and urban; caste and tribal; town and city.

We had done data analysis based on gender, caste, religion, literacy level and economic class. We had prepared a detailed polling booth wise analysis based on different levels and variables. We have compared the results of the three levels of elections and come out with findings of this study.

Jayesh Shah and Lancy Lobo have carried out this study under the guidance of Professors P.M. Patel. Alboan and Province Development Office, Ahmedabad have financially supported this study.

10.Changing Family and Marriage among Hindu and Christians of Central Gujarat.
The Indian family has been characterized for long as joint or undivided family in literature as well as popular thought. Most of the families in India are extended families, wherein every member has his/her own role, often influenced by age and gender. Children are cherished and considered as gifts from God. Children can look forward to continual family support throughout their life, unlike in the western countries. Children are expected to respect their elders and parents, their wishes, and family ties. This does not mean that there are no quarrels and conflicts of all kinds.
Marriage is the joining of two persons as well as their families. In India, it is regarded as more than an individual's decision. Majority of the marriages are arranged by parents. The prospective bride and groom are usually expected to marry someone from their own caste and religious background. Marriage partners are often found through the extended family circle, or in urban areas, through newspaper advertisements and marriage bureaus. The elders use their experience and wisdom to guide younger family members for their future. As per traditions followed, men have held the primary responsibility of financially supporting their families.Nowadays, traditional roles are changing, especially in urban areas. There are important values shared and followed by most Indian families. But today's young generation, who is into the modern age, do not seem to like the traditions and family practices that have been followed by their families for decades. They are more inclined toward the western culture and lifestyle.
This study engages with the family, kinship, marriage and divorce among the Wankars. Are there Hindu-Christian marriages? Does one find elements of Hinduism even in the Christian families? Do Christians follow different family laws? Are Christian families more westernized than Hindu families? Are there more joint households more common among Hindus than among Christians?
Lancy Lobo, Kanchan Bharati and Jayesh Shah have carried out this study with guidance from professor A.M. Shah.

09. Longitudinal Election Studies in Vadodara District of Gujarat: Assembly elections held in Gujarat State in  2012.
CCD has carried out empirical studies on elections in limited rural and urban sites of Vadodara district at various levels viz., Village Panchayat, Municipal/Corporation, Taluka and District, Assembly and Parliamentary. The objective of these longitudinal studies was to provide the relative strength of individual and group behaviour and modernist orientations in Gujarat politics which may have long-lasting impact on regional as well as national politics. More specifically, they attempt to throw light on the nature, extent and limits of different caste and community voting, as well as individual voting as an effective factor in electoral behaviour. The other factors considered are: character of party organization, effective booth management, ideological appeal, and issue of development and personal incentives to the voters. Are primordial ties still influencing the pattern of voting behaviour of the individual voter? To what extent individuals are voting as individuals transcending caste and creed? To what extent Indian democracy has matured as far as electoral behaviour is concerned? These are some of the questions which we would like to investigate in this study by getting down to the booth level voting analysis.
We studied the following sites:

    1. Five election wards comprising part of Vadodara (East) of Vadodara Municipal Corporation (VMC)(Ward No. 5, 6, 7, 17 and 19) out of total 25 election wards in VMC.
    2. All twelve election wards of Dabhoi Municipality.
    3. All election booths of Taluka Panchayat Seat of Jetpur-Pavi Taluka for Jabugam Village.
    4. All election booths of District Panchayat Seat of Vadodara District for Jabugam Village.
    5. All election booths of Taluka Panchayat Seat of Padra Taluka for Vadu Village.
    6. All election booths of District Panchayat Seat of Vadodara District for Vadu Village.

The first study was begun with the “Booth Level Voting Pattern in Vadodara Rural and Urban Sites in the Taluka Panchayat Elections of 2010”. The second study engaged with the “Assembly elections held in Gujarat state in 2012”.
A number of election studies have been conducted in each Parliamentary and State Assemblies’ elections with the objective of understanding the electoral behaviour. How people vote and how leaders build electoral support are questions that have always excited many social researchers and commentators on Indian politics. However, the analyses of the data have not moved much beyond reporting on “who voted whom”, going by certain important background characteristics such as education, age, gender, residence, caste, religion and income. We need to integrate these findings with the descriptive studies available in the field. But further effort is necessary to use the data to understand why people vote the way they do. What logic do they follow at this juncture? How do they understand democracy? Do they have faith in democracy? Will they express their preference based on rational calculation of the behavior of the political parties? Do voters make purely rational, instrumental, technical and utilitarian decisions, when choosing to vote for a particular party? Or do they vote purely in terms of identification with a specific party, which they feel can best give them a voice to express who they are? The present study attempts to analyse the civic literacy and political participation of the people in urban and rural areas of Vadodara city.
The following questions had been addressed for the analyses of the study.

    1. What is the level of civic literacy and political participation of citizens in urban and rural Vadodara?
    2. How can the civic literacy and the political participation be measured in urban and rural Vadodara?
    3. What are the relevant variables and indicators that influence civic literacy and political participation of citizens?
    4. How are civic literacy and political participation correlated?

Drs. Lancy Lobo, Jayesh Shah and M. Sahu have conducted this study.

08.Study of the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay.
Prof. A M Shah and Lancy Lobo have undertaken a study of the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay established in 1886. The Indian Council of Social Science Research, Mumbai has given to CCD a small grant to procure the issues of the entire old series of the journal. This task has been completed.

07.Booth Level Voting Pattern in Vadodara Rural and Urban Sites in the Elections of 2010.
Elections in Gujarat state provide an interesting case study of the relative strength of individual and group behaviour and modern orientations in Gujarat politics which may have a long-lasting impact on regional politics. More specifically, it can throw light on the nature, extent and limits of different caste and community voting as well as individual voting patterns as an effective factor in electoral behaviour.
Do primordial ties still influence voting behaviour of the individual voter? To what extent do individuals vote as individuals transcending caste and creed? To what extent has Indian democracy matured as far as electoral behaviour goes? These are some of the questions which we would like to investigate in this study by analysing booth level voting.
The following sites were studied in detail:

    1. Five election wards (Nos. 5, 6, 7, 17 and 19) comprising part of Vadodara (East) of Vadodara.
    2. Municipal Corporation (VMC) out of the total 25 election wards in VMC.
    3. All twelve election wards of Dabhoi Municipality.
    4. All election booths of Jabugam Village (Taluka Jetpur Pavi).
    5. All election booths of Vadu Village (Taluka Padra).In the local elections of 2010, no community voted en bloc for any one party. The votes of every community were split. The extent to which votes were split varied from one community to another and from one ward to another. The Muslim votes were split between BJP and INC. Nearly 25 per cent Muslim voters voted for BJP, which is a new phenomenon in this election.In the areas where 'moderate' Muslim voters are in a majority among total Muslim voters, most of them voted for BJP, while areas where 'less moderate' Muslims are in a majority among the Muslim voters, most had voted for INC. The relationship between the Scheduled Tribes (ST) and INC has generally been considered very close. In this election, it seems to have fallen asunder.

By and large there is no evidence of a clear-cut identity along communal lines among or between voters on the one hand and voters and the candidate on the other. The relation is far more complex and varies in different parts of the study area. The influence of politics and political parties on caste varies from one community to another, depending upon the assimilation of various sections of society into the political community. The political process provides choices to individuals and groups, thus contributing to the process of individualisation going on in developing social processes in Gujarat.
The study of the 2010 local elections was carried out by Jayesh Shah and Lancy Lobo. It is planned that a similar study will be done for every election to be held in these study areas.

06.Dehzado Records of Baroda State.
The censuses of the erstwhile Baroda State (Dehzado) are unique in having classified the population of every village and town by sex, religion, caste and tribe. These records provide a unique opportunity to study the horizontal dimension of caste and tribe with their actual geographical spread. They also help in studying in a regional context the relations between caste/tribe and village, and caste/tribe and urban centres. Dehzado records enabled us to test various hypotheses such as the jajmani system, self-sufficiency of the village, rural-urban network, dominant caste, concentrations of religious minorities and their co-existence with Hindu castes and tribes, etc. An examination of the above threw light on many theoretical issues of an all-India nature and helped correct notions about caste, tribe, village, city, religion and region. Baroda state had four exclaves in different parts of Gujarat. This enabled us to generalise conclusions for the whole of Gujarat. Lancy Lobo and Shashikant Kumar carried out this exercise with guidance by Professor A. M. Shah.

05.Impact Assessment of Watershed Project at Katkuva.
Katkuva is a tribal village nestling amidst the hills of Mandvi Taluka in Surat district. The Lok Seva Sangh has made considerable interventions in the village over the years. Among them was the watershed project during the last five years. Its evaluation highlighted the strengths and concerns of the watershed intervention in Katkuva village. Lancy Lobo and Shashikant Kumar conducted this evaluation.

04.Need Assessment of Ten Villages in Rapar Taluka, Kachchh District.
Rapar is the most backward taluka in Kachchh district in Gujarat. After the earthquake of 2001 a number of NGOs did relief work there, many of which have gone away. However, one agency named Prem Niwas wanted to carry on the developmental work by identifying ten target villages around the town of Rapar. CCD undertook a systematic need assessment for Prem Niwas and prepared a proposal for relevant interventions. Lancy Lobo and Shashikant Kumar carried out this exercise.

03.Impact Assessment of Gundi Developmental Project in Songadh Taluka of Surat District.
This Project in Songadh Taluka of Surat District covered people of seven villages displaced by the Ukai dam 36 years ago. An NGO named  Navjeevan  Seva Mandal, Vyara, had been working here through multiple interventions for the last five years. CCD did an assessment of the impact of these interventions, mainly on women's Self Help Groups, agricultural development, and migration. The study scanned benchmark surveys, annual and interim reports, and other secondary sources. It conducted a sample household survey, Focus Group Discussions, individual interviews with beneficiaries as well as non-beneficiaries, in target villages, and discussions in non-target villages. The study was done with the knowledge that there were also government interventions in the target villages. The report was presented to Navjeevan Seva Mandal in 2005. Lancy Lobo and Shashikant Kumar undertook this project.

02.Need Assessment of Six Villages in Modasa Taluka of Sabarkantha District for Sangath – An NGO.
Three irrigated and three dry villages on either side of the highway passing through Modasa taluka were identified for socio-economic analysis and need assessment for Sangath, an NGO in Modasa. The scope of the study was (a) to assess the villages for the level of poverty; (b) to understand the development perception of the villagers; (c) to identify local development issues; and (d) to suggest programme intervention. This study helped draw attention to some vital issues for detailed discussion for planning interventions in these villages. Lancy Lobo and Shashikant Kumar worked on this project.

01.Impact Assessment of Developmental Projects by Missionaries in South Gujarat.
Catholic Missionaries have been initiating developmental activities for the tribals of South Gujarat for the last forty years. These interventions have been in the fields of education, health, social action and legal aid, and deal with women, children,  youth  and migrants in six districts.
This project had four stages: (1) self-evaluation by the missionary personnel themselves through an elaborate questionnaire;(2) eliciting the perceptions of beneficiaries through Focus Group Discussions;(3) these were reported in a composite document; and(4) workshops were held for the missionary personnel to produce a policy document. Lancy Lobo and Amit Mitra undertook this project.